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What’s the secret behind Dark Matter? a component that is holding up the entire cosmos. The universe is filled with secrets, more is unknown than is known, a lot has been discovered and a lot needs to be discovered.
Have you ever imagined, what the universe is made up of?
Here is an interesting fact that the matter known to us is merely 5% of which universe is formed from, it turns out that roughly 68% of the universe consists of dark energy, and dark matter makes up about 27%. Which is completely unknown to us but present around us. The secret behind the dark matter is what we are going to reveal in this post.
What is Dark Matter?
An estimated 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of matter that scientists and researchers cannot directly observe known as dark matter, this hypothetical matter does not emit energy or light but is still present in the Universe. Dark matter is discerned from its gravitational attraction rather than its luminosity.
Dark matter existence was first inferred by swiss American astronomer Fritz Zwicky in 1933, Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter. Dark matter seems to outweigh visible matter roughly six to one, making up about 27% of the universe.
One idea is that it could contain “supersymmetric particles”– hypothesized particles that are partners to those already known in the standard model. Experiments at the large hadron collider may provide more information regarding the dark matter.
Many theories say the dark matter would be light enough to be produced at the LHC and hence they would escape from the detector unnoticed, However, they would carry away energy and momentum so the researchers could infer its existence by the amount of energy and momentum missing after the collision.
How could we know dark matter exists?
If researchers can’t find dark matter, how could they know about its existence?
Scientists calculate the mass of the large objects in space by studying their motion. Astronomers examining spiral galaxies in the 1970s expected to see the material in the center moving faster than on the outer edges. Instead, they found the stars in both the locations traveled at the same velocity, indicating galaxies contain more mass than could be seen. Studies of the gas within elliptical galaxies also indicate a need for more mass than found inside visible objects, thus more mass is present than the visible mass because the cluster of galaxies would scatter in only visible is present according to conventional Astro measurement.
Thus dark matter comes into existence.
Dark Matter vs Dark Energy
Although dark matter makes up most of the universe, it only makes up 27% of the entire universal matter composition. The energy of the universe is mostly composed of dark energy.
After the BIG-BANG, the universe began expanding outwards, researchers thought it would run out of energy, slowing down as gravity pulled the object inside it together. But studies reveal that the universe is expanding faster than it was in the past, this could only happen if the universe contains enough energy to overcome gravity, and that energy is none other than Dark Energy.
Since the confirmation of dark matter’s existence, a preponderance of dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies has been discerned through the phenomenon of gravitational lensing-matter acting as a lens by bending space and distorting the passage of background light.
The presence of missing matter in the center of galaxies and cluster of galaxies has been inferred from the motion and heat of gas that gives rise to observed x-rays (Chandra x-ray observatory) the mass of cluster remains unaffected indicating that most of the mass consisting of dark matter.
Research and experiment will surely strengthen the truth behind dark matter in near future, till then let’s believe that more is unknown than is known.
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